In the process of mechanical assembly, the transmission, feeding and assembly of basic parts and assemblies can be partially or completely semi-automatic or automatic. The main purpose of mechanical assembly automation is to ensure product quality and stability, improve labor conditions, improve labor productivity and reduce production costs. The general requirements of assembly automation are: the production batch of products is large; the automatic assembly process of product structure is good, such as good separability of assembly work, easy orientation and positioning of parts, multi-purpose gluing and welding between parts instead of screw connection, avoiding the use of gasket and other adjusting parts; the adoption of automatic assembly should have better economic effect. The degree of automation of assembly operations often needs to be determined through technical and economic analysis.
Mechanical assembly automation
mainly includes automatic transmission, automatic feeding, automatic assembly and automatic control.
According to the different transmission modes of the basic parts between the assembly stations.
1. The rotary structure is simple, the positioning accuracy is easy to guarantee, and the assembly station is small, which is suitable for small and medium-sized parts and products with small number of assembly parts.
2. The structure of the direct type is more complex than that of the rotary type, the number of assembly stations is unlimited, the adjustment is flexible, the floor area is large, and the basic parts are generally delivered intermittently. According to the beat of intermittent transmission, it can be divided into synchronous type and asynchronous type.
There are two basic types of feeding: Bin feeding and hopper feeding. Their structures and characteristics are similar to the loading and unloading devices of machine tools.
Automatic assembly operations include automatic cleaning, balancing, sorting, loading, connecting and testing, sometimes including finished product packaging and some auxiliary processing procedures.
In automatic assembly, all kinds of transfer, feeding and assembly procedures and coordination must depend on the control system. Fixed program control system composed of cam, lever, spring and stop is commonly used. But it can not adapt when the structure of the assembled parts or products changes greatly.